Lesson 16Two Related Quantities, Part 1
Let’s use equations and graphs to describe relationships with ratios.
Learning Targets:
 I can create tables and graphs that show the relationship between two amounts in a given ratio.
 I can write an equation with variables that shows the relationship between two amounts in a given ratio.
16.1 Which One Would You Choose?
Which one would you choose? Be prepared to explain your reasoning.
 A 5pound jug of honey for $15.35
 Three 1.5pound jars of honey for $13.05
16.2 Painting the Set
Lin needs to mix a specific color of paint for the set of the school play. The color is a shade of orange that uses 3 parts yellow for every 2 parts red.

Complete the table to show different combinations of red and yellow paint that will make the shade of orange Lin needs.
cups of red paint cups of yellow paint total cups of paint 2 3 6 20 18 14 16 50 42 
Lin notices that the number of cups of red paint is always of the total number of cups. She writes the equation to describe the relationship. Which is the independent variable? Which is the dependent variable? Explain how you know.

Write an equation that describes the relationship between and where is the independent variable.

Write an equation that describes the relationship between and where is the independent variable.

Use the points in the table to create two graphs that show the relationship between and . Match each relationship to one of the equations you wrote.
Are you ready for more?
Lesson 16 Summary
Equations are very useful for describing sets of equivalent ratios. Here is an example.
A pie recipe calls for 3 green apples for every 5 red apples. We can create a table to show some equivalent ratios.
green apples (g)  red apples (r) 

3  5 
6  10 
9  15 
12  20 
We can see from the table that is always as large as and that is always as large as . We can write equations to describe the relationship between and .

When we know the number of green apples and want to find the number of red apples, we can write: In this equation, if changes, is affected by the change, so we refer to as the independent variable and as the dependent variable.
We can use this equation with any value of to find . If 270 green apples are used, then or 450 red apples are used.

When we know the number of red apples and want to find the number of green apples, we can write: In this equation, if changes, is affected by the change, so we refer to as the independent variable and as the dependent variable.
We can use this equation with any value of to find . If 275 red apples are used, then or 165 green apples are used.
We can also graph the two equations we wrote to get a visual picture of the relationship between the two quantities.
Glossary Terms
The dependent variable is the result of a calculation.
For example, a boat travels at a constant speed of 25 miles per hour. The equation describes the relationship between the boat's distance and time. The dependent variable is the distance traveled, because is the result of multiplying 25 by .
The independent variable is used to calculate the value of another variable.
For example, a boat travels at a constant speed of 25 miles per hour. The equation describes the relationship between the boat's distance and time. The independent variable is time, because is multiplied by 25 to get .
Lesson 16 Practice Problems

Here is a graph that shows some values for the number of cups of sugar, , required to make batches of brownies.
 Complete the table so that the pair of numbers in each column represents the coordinates of a point on the graph.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
 What does the point mean in terms of the amount of sugar and number of batches of brownies?
 Write an equation that shows the amount of sugar in terms of the number of batches.
 Complete the table so that the pair of numbers in each column represents the coordinates of a point on the graph.

Each serving of a certain fruit snack contains 90 calories.
 Han wants to know how many calories he gets from the fruit snacks. Write an equation that shows the number of calories, , in terms of the number of servings, .
 Tyler needs some extra calories each day during his sports season. He wants to know how many servings he can have each day if all the extra calories come from the fruit snack. Write an equation that shows the number of servings, , in terms of the number of calories, .

Kiran shops for books during a 20% off sale.
 What percent of the original price of a book does Kiran pay during the sale?
 Complete the table to show how much Kiran pays for books during the sale.
 Write an equation that relates the sale price, , to the original price .
 On graph paper, create a graph showing the relationship between the sale price and the original price by plotting the points from the table.
original price
in dollarssale price
in dollars1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10