# Lesson 13: Measurement Error

Let’s use percentages to describe how accurately we can measure.

## 13.1: Measuring to the Nearest

Your teacher will give you two rulers and three line segments labeled A, B, and C.

1. Use the centimeter ruler to measure each line segment to the nearest centimeter. Record these lengths in the first column of the table.
2. Use the millimeter ruler to measure each line segment to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. Record these lengths in the second column of the table.
line segment length (cm)
as measured with
the first ruler
length (cm)
as measured with
the second ruler
A
B
C

## 13.2: Measuring a Soccer Field

A soccer field is 120 yards long. Han measures the length of the field using a 30-foot-long tape measure and gets a measurement of 358 feet, 10 inches.

1. What is the amount of the error?

2. Express the error as a percentage of the actual length of the field.

Your teacher will tell you which three items to measure. Keep using the paper rulers from the earlier activity.

1. Between you and your partner, decide who will use which ruler.
2. Measure the three items assigned by your teacher and record your measurements in the first column of the appropriate table.

Using the cm ruler:

item   measured
length (cm)
actual
length (cm)
difference percentage
row 1
row 2
row 3

Using the mm ruler:

item   measured
length (cm)
actual
length (cm)
difference percentage
row 1
row 2
row 3
4. Calculate the difference between your measurements and the actual lengths in both tables.
5. For each difference, what percentage of the actual length is this amount? Record your answers in the last column of the tables.

## Summary

When we are measuring a length using a ruler or measuring tape, we can get a measurement that is different from the actual length. This could be because we positioned the ruler incorrectly, or it could be because the ruler is not very precise. There is always at least a small difference between the actual length and a measured length, even if it is a microscopic difference!

Here are two rulers with different markings. The second ruler is marked in millimeters, so it is easier to get a measurement to the nearest tenth of a centimeter with this ruler than with the first. For example, a line that is actually 6.2 cm long might be measured to be 6 cm long by the first ruler, because we measure to the nearest centimeter.

The measurement error is the positive difference between the measurement and the actual value. Measurement error is often expressed as a percentage of the actual value. We always use a positive number to express measurement error and, when appropriate, use words to describe whether the measurement is greater than or less than the actual value.

For example, if we get 6 cm when we measure a line that is actually 6.2 cm long, then the measurement error is 0.2 cm, or about 3.2%, because $0.2 \div 6.2 \approx 0.032$.

## Glossary

measurement error

#### measurement error

Measurement error is the positive difference between a measurement of a quantity and the actual quantity. It is often expressed as a percentage of the actual value. For example, if we get 6 cm when we measure a line that is actually 6.2 cm long, then the measurement error is 0.2 cm and the percent error is 3.2%, because $0.2 \div 6.2=0.032$.